There's Muslims in the Arctic Circle with 24 hours of daylight.
In reality none of this is ever too big of a deal, people unable to fast for medical reasons are exempt and I'm sure Allah would understand that maybe a month long fast due to conditions in the Arctic Circle isn't ideal. More than a few clerics have issued fatwas or similar to tell people to just follow the timescales of Mecca or Medina.
Islam just requires people to make a donation to a sick or needy person in the form of a kaffarah if they break their fast, it isn't like an eternal damnation thing. There are charities built around this idea:
I lived and worked in various locations around the Middle East for 14 years, Ramadan always amused me. Fasting from dawn until dusk, no eating, drinking or smoking then off to sunset prayers and then 'pig out' to make up for it. Then it's party time well into the early hours. No wonder they were shagged out the next day but always feigning weakness and tiredness due to 'fasting'. It made my job easier anyway, less and less turning up for work the further into Ramadan we got and shorter working hours, so more time in certain watering holes that were, err, 'exempt'.